Memby'ỹrã

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Pohã apu'a memby'ỹrã rehegua.

Memby'ỹrã, ojeikuaáva avei membyryme ha ñemoñakatu jehapejokóicha, ha'e tembiaporape térã mba'ejepuru ani hag̃ua oñepyrũ tyeguasu.[1] Memby'ỹrã ñembohaperã, jepurukuaa ha ijepuru ojehero ogaygua ñembohaperã.[2][3] Memby'ỹrã tembiaporape ojeipuru ymaite guive, ha katu ijepuru porã ha oñangarekóva osẽ ramo XX sa ro'ýpente.[4] Oĩ arandupy omboapýrava térã omokangýva memby'ỹrã jepuru oimo'ãre oĩ vaiha tekoporã, tupã jeroviaha térã tetã jokuairapépe g̃uarã.[4]

Umi memby'ỹrã tembiaporape oiko porãvéva ha'e ñemboguéro, ojejapóva mombary rape ñeñapytĩ rupive kuimba'épe, ha tupi'aky mitãrã rape ñeñapytĩ rupive kuñáme, membyryru apytegua mba'ejepuru ha memby'ỹrã oñemoingekuaáva. Ko'ãva rire ou tajyguery tembiaporape; umíva apytépe oĩ pohã apu'a jurugua, ñembovyvy, mba'e jere takopegua, ha pohãkutu. Umi tembiaporape ndaha'éiva ku oiko porãitereíva ha'e umi jokoha atã , ha'éva hína mombaryryru, mba'embotyha, avei memby'ỹrã haviru ha ñemoñakatu jeikuaauka. Umi tembiaporape oiko'ỹvéva ha'e mombaryjukaha ha ojehekýivo kuimba'e omombapoi mboyve. Ñemboguéro oikoitérõ jepe, ndaikatúi jepi oñembojevy; opa ambue tembiaporape ikatu oñembojevy ndojejapoveivove.[5] Poreno ñeñangarekóre, ojeipurúvo kuimba'e térã kuña mombaryryru, ikatu avei ohapejoko mba'asy oñemosarambíva poreno rupive.[6][7] Purupya'erã memby'ỹrã ikatu ohapejoko tyeguasu ohasa rire peteĩ mokõi ára oiko rire poreno ñeñangareko'ỹre.[8] Oĩ tapicha he'íva poreno'ỹ ha'eha memby'ỹrã, ha katu tekombo'e poreno'ỹnte ohechakuaáva ikatu ombohetave mitãkuñarusu hyeguasúva oñembo'éramo upévante memby'ỹrã tekombo'e'ỹre, ikatuhaguére ndojejapói upe oñembo'éva.[9][10]

Umi mitãkuñarusukuérape, tyeguasu ikatuve opa mba'e vaípe. Oĩrõ porenogua tekombo'e ha memby'ỹrã ikatúva ojeipuru, oguejy tyeguasu ojeipota'ỹva umi mitãkuñarusu apytépe.[11][12] Mitãkuñarusukuéra ikatúramo jepe oipuru opa memby'ỹrãichagua,[13] umi memby'ỹrã ikatúva oñembojevy ha oiko pukúva, ha'éva hína: membyryme oñemoingéva, membyryru apytegua mba'ejepuru, térã mba'e jere takopegua, ou porãiterei oguejy hag̃ua tyeguasu mitãkuñarusu apytépe.[12] Imemby rire, kuña nomokambúinteva ikatu hyeguasu jey irundy térã poteĩ arapokõindy riremínte. Oĩ memby'ỹrã tembiaporape ikatúva umi kuña omoñepyrũ imemby riremínte; ambue katu oñemoñepyrũkuaa poteĩ jasy rire raẽ. Umi kuña omokambúvape, Progestina-añónte tembiaporape iporãve umi membyryme pohã apu'a jurugua joparágui. Umi kuña ikuñaruguysẽpávape g̃uarã oje'eka iporãha ombopuku upe memby'ỹrã peteĩ ary ikuñaruguysẽ paha rire.[13]

Oĩ 222 sua kuñanguéra ndahyeguasuséiva umi tetã kakuaátavape ndoipurúiva memby'ỹrã tembiaporape ko'ag̃agua.[14][15] Umi tetã kakuaátavape, memby'ỹrã jepuru ombosa'ive ñemano tyeguasu jave térã kuña hyeguasukuaa javépe 40% rupi (270.000 ñemano ojehapejoko 2008-pe), ha ikatu ojehapejoko 70% oñeme'ẽmbaite guive memby'ỹrã umi oikotevẽvape.[16][17] Oñembopukuve rupive ára hyeguasu jey hag̃ua, memby'ỹrã ikatu ogueru mba'e porã kuñáme imembyvove ha avei imemby oikove hag̃ua.[16] Arapy kakuaátavape, kuña viru mbyaty, mba'erepy, pohyikue, ha imemby rekombo'e ha resãi iporãveta ikatúrõ oipuruve memby'ỹrã.[18] Memby'ỹrã ohupive virupurukuaa ñembokakuaa kuña imemby'i sa'imiehaguére, hetave kuña omba'apohaguére, ha oipuru'ỹvehaguére katupururã ipokãva.[18][19]

Mandu'apy[jehaijey | editar código]

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  2. Oxford English Dictionary. Oxford University Press. June 2012. http://www.oed.com/view/Entry/19395. 
  3. World Health Organization (WHO). "Family planning." Health topics. World Health Organization (WHO).
  4. 4,0 4,1 «Fertility control: contraception, sterilization, and abortion». The Johns Hopkins manual of gynecology and obstetrics (4th edición). Philadelphia: Wolters Kluwer Health/Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. 21 December 2010. pp. 382–395. ISBN 978-1-60547-433-5. 
  5. Family planning: A global handbook for providers: Evidence-based guidance developed through worldwide collaboration (Rev. and Updated edición). Geneva, Switzerland: WHO and Center for Communication Programs. 2011. ISBN 978-0-9788563-7-3. http://www.fphandbook.org/sites/default/files/hb_english_2012.pdf. 
  6. „We have the evidence to enhance adolescent sexual and reproductive health--do we have the will?“. Adolescent medicine: state of the art reviews, 22 (3), 521–543, xii (2011). PMID 22423463. 
  7. The Effectiveness of Group-Based Comprehensive Risk-Reduction and Abstinence Education Interventions to Prevent or Reduce the Risk of Adolescent Pregnancy, Human Immunodeficiency Virus, and Sexually Transmitted Infections“. American Journal of Preventive Medicine, 42 (3), 272–294 (2012). DOI:10.1016/j.amepre.2011.11.006. PMID 22341164. 
  8. Gizzo, S. „Nowadays which emergency contraception? Comparison between past and present: latest news in terms of clinical efficacy, side effects and contraindications.“. Gynecological endocrinology : the official journal of the International Society of Gynecological Endocrinology, 28 (10), 758–63 (October 2012). DOI:10.3109/09513590.2012.662546. PMID 22390259. 
  9. DiCenso A, Guyatt G, Willan A, Griffith L. „Interventions to reduce unintended pregnancies among adolescents: systematic review of randomised controlled trials“. BMJ, 324 (7351), 1426 (June 2002). DOI:10.1136/bmj.324.7351.1426. PMID 12065267. 
  10. Government Support for Abstinence-Only-Until-Marriage Education“. Clinical Pharmacology & Therapeutics, 84 (6), 746–748 (2008). DOI:10.1038/clpt.2008.188. PMID 18923389. 
  11. „Pregnancy in adolescents“. Adolescent medicine: state of the art reviews, 23 (1), 123–138, xi (2012). PMID 22764559. 
  12. 12,0 12,1 „Contraception for primary care providers“. Adolescent medicine: state of the art reviews, 23 (1), 95–110, x–xi (2012). PMID 22764557. 
  13. 13,0 13,1 Family planning: A global handbook for providers: Evidence-based guidance developed through worldwide collaboration (Rev. and Updated edición). Geneva, Switzerland: WHO and Center for Communication Programs. 2011. pp. 260–300. ISBN 978-0-9788563-7-3. http://www.fphandbook.org/sites/default/files/hb_english_2012.pdf. 
  14. "Costs and Benefits of Contraceptive Services: Estimates for 2012." (pdf) United Nations Population Fund. pp. 1 June 2012.
  15. Giving women the power to plan their families“. The Lancet, 380 (9837), 80–82 (2012). DOI:10.1016/S0140-6736(12)60905-2. PMID 22784540. 
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  17. Maternal deaths averted by contraceptive use: An analysis of 172 countries“. The Lancet, 380 (9837), 111–125 (2012). DOI:10.1016/S0140-6736(12)60478-4. PMID 22784531. 
  18. 18,0 18,1 The economic consequences of reproductive health and family planning“. The Lancet, 380 (9837), 165–171 (2012). DOI:10.1016/S0140-6736(12)60827-7. PMID 22784535. 
  19. Slowing population growth for wellbeing and development“. The Lancet, 380 (9837), 84–85 (2012). DOI:10.1016/S0140-6736(12)60902-7. PMID 22784542.